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WASHINGTON, DC: According to new analysis, 80 percent of global CO2 emissions produced since the Paris Agreement have been the responsibility of 57 corporate and state entities.

Countries and their state-owned companies account for 75 percent of the total while investors make up the rest.

Based on a dataset first established in 2013 by Richard Heede of the Climate Accountability Institute, 78 percent of corporate and state-producing entities have been responsible for over 70 percent of total global fossil fuel and cement CO2 emissions between 1854 and 2022.

China tops the historic list followed by the USSR, Saudi Aramaco, Chevron, Exxon Mobil, Gazprom, Iranian National Iranian Oil Company, BP, Shell and Coal India.

Since 2016, the largest emissions producers are Saudi Aramco, Gazprom, Coal India, National Iranian Oil Company, Rosneft, China National Oil Company, Abu Dhabi National Oil Company, ExxonMobil, Iraq National Oil Company and Shell.

"Richard Heede's landmark Carbon Majors research transformed the landscape of climate accountability by using the fossil fuel industry's own reported production and operation figures to calculate and expose the true scale of its role in the climate crisis,” says Carroll Muffett, president and CEO of the Washington, DC-based Center for International Environmental Law.

Other key findings include:

• Chevron, ExxonMobil, BP, Shell and ConocoPhillips are responsible for 11.1 percent of historical fossil fuel and cement CO2 emissions.

• The top five state-owned companies: Saudi Aramco, Gazprom, the National Iranian Oil Company, Coal India and Pemex (Mexico), are responsible for 10.9 percent of historical fossil fuel and cement CO2 emissions.

• Coal supply has shifted from investor-owned to state-owned entities as the former cut emissions 28 percent from 2015 to 2022 while the latter increased production and subsequent emissions 29 percent.

"The Carbon Majors research shows us exactly who is responsible for the lethal heat, extreme weather, and air pollution that is threatening lives and wreaking havoc on our oceans and forests,” comments Tzeporah Berman, International Program director at Stand.earth and chair of the Fossil Fuel Non-Proliferation Treaty.

Berman claims the producers continue to earn billions of dollars while deflecting the problem with advertising campaigns about being part of a sustainable solution. “These findings emphasize that, more than ever, we need our governments to stand up to these companies,” she adds.

LONDON, UK: Business watchdog Global Witness says the 50-plus oil and gas companies who authored and signed a ‘net-zero’ carbon reduction agreement at COP28, will be responsible for 156 billion tonnes of CO2 emissions in the next 25 years.

According to analysis based on the Rystad Energy database, the NGO says the signatories of the UAE ‘Oil and Gas Decarbonisation Charter’ have only agreed to achieve net-zero emissions from their operations by 2050.

As a result, up to 90 percent of the emissions from 265 billion barrels of oil and 26.7 billion cubic metres of gas will be burned by end users - equal to 62 percent of the Earth’s remaining 1.5C carbon budget.

Saudi Aramco and ADNOC are projected to produce a combined 136.4 billion barrels of oil and 5.5 billion cubic metres of gas resulting in 64.7 billion tonnes of CO2 emissions.

Of the international oil companies, ExxonMobil, Equinor, TotalEnergies, Eni and Shell are forecast to collectively produce 57 billion barrels of oil and 8.4 billion cubic metres of gas to emit 38.6 billion tonnes of CO2.

Heralded by the UAE as a big win for the environment, the list of signatories include 30 national oil companies: Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC), Bapco Energies, Ecopetrol, EGAS, Equinor, GOGC, INPEX Corporation, KazMunaiGas, Mari Petroleum, Namcor, National Oil Company of Libya, Nilepet, NNPC, OGDC,ONGC, Pakistan Petroleum Limited (PPL), Pertamina, Petoro, Petrobras, Petroleum Development Oman, Petronas, PTTEP, Saudi Aramco, SNOC, SOCAR, Sonangol, Uzbekneftegaz, ZhenHua Oil and YPF.

And over 20 energy companies also added their names to the declaration: Azule Energy, BP, Cepsa, COSMO Energy, Crescent Petroleum, Dolphin Energy Limited, Energean Oil & Gas, Eni, EQT Corporation, Exxonmobil, ITOCHU, LUKOIL, Mitsui & Co, Oando plc, Occidental Petroleum, OMV, Puma Energy (Trafigura), Repsol, Shell, TotalEnergies and the Woodside Energy Group.

"You'd think the hottest year in the last 125,000 would be enough to end greenwashing once and for all - but since it wasn't, let's state it plainly,” said Bill McKibben, climate campaigner and co-founder of 350.org. “No means no - there's not a way to square 'decarbonisation' with fossil fuel expansion. They mean the exact opposite.”

Global Witness senior fossil fuels investigator Patrick Galey added: “After looking at the detail of this pact, signed to great backslapping by bosses of some of the world’s largest polluters, I have only two questions: Who do these people think they are, and how stupid do they think we are?”

Galey declared the agreement was little more than a forgery; allowing the fossil fuel industry to produce and sell billions of barrels of oil and gas for decades.

READING, UK/BOLOGNA, Italy/BONN, Germany: The EU Copernicus Climate Change Service says 2023 was the warmest year on record and the first time every day exceeded 1.0°C above the 1850-1900 pre-industrial level.

Nearly 50 percent of days were more than 1.5°C warmer than the 1850-1900 level, and two days in November were, for the first time, more than 2°C warmer.

Other Copernicus highlights include:

• 2023 is confirmed as the warmest calendar year in global temperature data records going back to 1850
• 2023 had a global average temperature of 14.98C, 0.17C higher than the previous highest annual value in 2016
• 2023 was 0.60˚C warmer than the 1991-2020 average and 1.48˚C warmer than the 1850-1900 pre-industrial level
• It is likely that a 12-month period ending in January or February 2024 will exceed 1.5°C above the pre-industrial level
• Each month from June to December in 2023 was warmer than the corresponding month in any previous year
• July and August 2023 were the warmest two months on record. Boreal summer (June-August) was also the warmest season on record
• In September 2023, the temperature deviation above the 1991–2020 average was larger than in any month in any year according to the Copernicus fifth generation ERA5 - atmospheric reanalysis - dataset (0.93˚C higher than the 1991-2020 average)
• October, November and December 2023, each with a temperature of 0.85˚C above average, ranked all joint second-largest in terms of temperature deviation above the 1991–2020 average.

"2023 was an exceptional year with climate records tumbling like dominoes,” said Samantha Burgess, deputy director of the Copernicus Climate Change Service. “Not only is 2023 the warmest year on record, it is also the first year with all days over 1.0˚C warmer than the pre-industrial period. Temperatures during 2023 likely exceed[ed] those of any period in at least the last 100,000 years.”

The Copernicus scientist acknowledged the “dire precedent” but added it didn't mean governments have allowed mankind to surpass the limits set by the Paris Agreement [yet] as they refer to periods of at least 20 years “where this average temperature anomaly is exceeded”.

This view is not shared by former NASA scientist James Hansen who warned Congress in 1988 of a warming global climate to no avail.

He says mankind has already exceeded the Paris Agreement ceiling and at the beginning of January, 2024 he published another warning together with colleagues Makiko Sato and Pushker Kharecha:

"December was the 7th consecutive month of record-shattering global temperature, driven by the combination of a moderately strong El Nino and a large decrease of Earth’s albedo. The El Nino will fade in the next few months, but we anticipate that the string of record monthly temperatures will continue to a total of 12 and possibly 13 months because of Earth’s unprecedented energy imbalance.

"By May the 12-month running-mean global temperature relative to 1880-1920 should be +1.6-1.7°C and not fall below +1.4 ± 0.1°C during the next La Nina minimum. Thus, given the planetary energy imbalance, it will be clear that the 1.5°C ceiling has been passed for all practical purposes."

Copernicus is a component of the European Union’s space programme and is its flagship Earth observation programme, which operates through six thematic services: Atmosphere, Climate Change, Emergency, Land, Marine, and Security.


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